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Estrogen Reduction Protocol
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Estrogen Reduction Protocol


Strictly speaking, all of us, men or women alike, suffer from estrogen dominance. There simply is so much of it around and it is impossible to fully escape its impact. Plastics, car exhaust, meats, soaps, carpet, furniture, and paneling are just some of the examples. You may have on-and-off sinus problems, headaches, dry eyes, asthma, cold hands and feet, and may not attribute them to your exposure to xenoestrogen. Over time, the exposure can cause more chronic problems such as arthritis, and gallbladder disease.

While a definitive diagnosis can be made through a thorough history and physical examination, together with laboratory tests of estrogens and progesterone levels, this is seldom done. Instead, synthetic estrogen such as Premarin ,or combination synthetic estrogen and synthethic progesterone (such as Pempro) are often passed out on the premise that symptoms presented are due to estrogen deficiency without any consideration for the progesterone part of the equation. In reality, many are suffering from relative estrogen dominance.

This naturally oriented protocol is designed to reduced the body's estrogen load and prevent onset of cancer. If you already have been diagnosed with cancer, more aggressive action will be needed including include all these steps.

  1. Natural Progesterone
    The typical domino effect of estrogen dominance starts with proliferation of estrogen sensitive cells, leading to overgrowth of endometrial lining, to PMS, to PCOS, to uterine fibroid, to hysterectomy, to severe iatrogenic (doctor-caused) hormonal imbalance (when estrogen is given alone with opposing progesterone), to misguided medication for depression and anxiety, to bone loss and reduced libido. These all can be reduced if the amount of estrogen in the body is normalized by administration of natural progesterone as a balancer.

    Natural progesterone such as Progensa 20 is therefore a cornerstone of estrogen reduction therapy. It helps to reduce the risk of ovarian, endometrial and breast cancers, while unopposed estradiol causes that is frequently associated with fibrocystic breast disease, endometriosis, PMS, fibroids, and breast cancer. If you have symptoms of estrogen dominance but have not been diagnosed with estrogen-related cancer, natural progesterone will still be valuable for its cancer prevention properties. Specific dosage varies depending on the condition. Baseline saliva testing of estrogen, progesterone, and their respective ratios should be undertaken. The body normally produces 20 mg of progesterone a day. Replacement of this physiological amount in natural cream form is suggested in most cases. There is a tremendous variation in the amount that should be taken for optimum effectiveness. It is recommended that you consult a naturally oriented physician prior to treatment.
  2. Dietary Adjustments
    Overeating and under-exercising are the norm in developed countries. Populations from such countries, especially in the Western hemisphere, derive a large part of their dietary calorie from fat. They also show a much higher incidence of menopausal symptoms. Studies have shown that the estrogen level fell in women who switched from a typical high-fat, refined-carbohydrate diet to a low-fat, high-fiber, plant-based diet even though they did not adjust their total calorie intake. Plants contain over 5,000 known sterols that have progestogenic effects. Cultures whose eating habits are more wholesome and who exercise more have a far lower incidence of menopausal symptoms because their pre- and postmenopausal levels of estrogen do not drop as significantly.

    In non-industrialized societies not subjected to environmental estrogen insults, progesterone deficiency is rare. During menopause, sufficient progestogenic substances are circulating in the body to keep the sex drive unabated, bones strong, and passage through menopause symptom-free.

    Some years back, scientists discovered that unfermented soy and various cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, bok choy, and Brussels sprouts contain a high level of phyto-estrogen. These compounds' chemical structure resembles estrogen but are many times weaker in potency. Women consuming these vegetables reported some relief of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. The prevailent wisdom is that women in menopause lacks estrogen , and pyhto-estrogen replenish the body with estrogen. Soy and cruciferous vegetables is heavily promoted.

    It is now known that these vegetables work by competitively occupying the estrogen receptor sites on the cell membrane to prevent internal estrogen from exerting its effects on the cell. Those who have estrogen dominance may therefore experience relief of symptoms as phyto-estrogen is many times weaker than the estrogen in our body.

    While phyto-estrogen may work and relief symptoms, the long term effect is probably undesirable because the estrogen receptor sites are still occupied, although by the less potent phyto-estrogen. Overconsumption of phyto-estrogenic food such as unfermented soy and cruciferous vegetables on a long term basis may actually not reduce the risk of estrogen dominance significantly. Its akin to replacing one potent devil with a lesser potent one. It is far more benefitial to rid of the estrogen from the receptor sites and replace them with progesterone. Estrogen load will therefore reduce significantly, and the risk of estrogenic diseases such as breast cancer will be less.

    Furthermore, phyto-estrogen have been shown to inhibit the conversiion of T4 to the active T3 thryoid hormone, and can trigger hypo-thyroidism.

    Women with estrogen dominance should only take unfermented soy such as tofu and cruciferous vegetables in moderation. Those with a history of thyroid imbalance should refrain from such vegetables.

    A plant-based unprocessed whole-food diet is recommended. At least 15 grams of fiber should be consumed a day. Avoid high-glycemic foods such as refined sugar. Avoid alcohol or drugs that can damage the liver which will lead to an increase in estrogen due to the lack of estrogen breakdown. Caffeine intake from all sources is linked with higher estrogen levels regardless of age, body mass index (BMI), caloric intake, smoking, and alcohol and cholesterol intake.

  3. Coffee and Tea
    Studies have shown that drinking more than two cups of coffee a day may increase estrogen levels in women. It could also lead to problems such as endometriosis and breast pain.

    In a clinical trial conducted, about 500 women between the ages of 36 to 45 were studied. These women were not pregnant, not breast-feeding or having hormonal treatment. They were interviewed regarding their diets, smoking habits, height, and weight. Their hormone levels during the first five days of their menstrual cycle was also measured. The results showed that women who consumed more than one cup of coffee a day had significantly higher levels of estrogen during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Those who consumed at least 500 mg of caffeine daily, the equivalent of four or five cups of coffee had nearly 70% more estrogen than women who consumed less than 100 mg of caffeine daily. Coffee consumption increases estradiol levels. There are three different forms of estrogen in the body - estrone, estradiol, and estriol. Estradiol is the form that is pro-cancerous.

    Having high levels of estrogen for women in such cases can be detrimental as it can lead to breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. Those who have a family history of cancer also have a higher risk. Women should limit their intake of coffee to no more than one to two cups daily to decrease their risk of having more serious health problems. Excessive chronic coffee intake is associated also with adrenal fatigue and reduced progesterone production. The proper progesterone to estrogen ratio is therefore not maintained, resulting in further estrogen dominance.

    Coffee (especially when accompanied with sugar) also creates an acidic internal environment. The body will try to neutralize the acid by withdrawing valuable minerals such as magnesium and calcium from the bone. This leads to mineral depletion if chronic and ultimately osteoporosis.

    In summary, coffee consumption can lead to increased estrogen, adrenal gland exhaustion, and osteoporosis. Clearly, coffee is not the women's best friend by any means.

  4. Detoxification
    The liver has two mechanisms designed to help detoxify the body. They are called Phase 1 and Phase 2 detoxification pathways. Individual xenoestrogen and metabolites, once entered our body, usually follow one or both of the pathways.

    Phase One - Detoxification Pathway
    IN Phase one, enzymes present in the liver cell help convert toxins into metabolites through a series of chemical reactions (such as oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis). One example of the phase one pathway involves the Cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Toxins are rendered harmless in this process and excreted through the kidneys. During this process, free radicals are often produced which, if present in excessive amounts, can damage the liver cells. Fortunately, the body has a built in protection mechanism and antioxidants (such as vitamin C and E and natural carotenoids) can reduce the damage caused by these free radicals. If these antioxidants are lacking, the toxin exposure is too high, the toxic chemicals can become very dangerous because some of them may be converted from relatively harmless substances into potentially carcinogenic substances.

    In our polluted environment, excessive amounts of toxic chemicals such as pesticides ,alcohol or medication, can disrupt the P-450 enzyme pathway by causing over activity or 'induction'. Substances that may cause overactivity (or induction) of the P- 450 enzyme pathway include caffeine, saturated fats, trans-fat, paint fumes, car exhaust, cigarette smokes, and barbiturates. As a result of this induction, high levels of free radical can be produced inside the body. In order to enhance Phase 1 detoxification pathway and prevent free radical overload, a wide variety of anti-oxidants including ascobic acid, lipoic acid, grape seed extract, quercetin, and N-acetyl-cysteine is needed by the body.

    Phase Two - Detoxification Pathway 
    In Phase two, the liver cells, in a process called conjugation, add another substance (eg. cysteine, glutathione, glucuronide, sulphur or glycine molecule) to the toxic drug or chemical which has entered the body. Once conjugated, the metabolite compound, whether it is toxic or not, is neutralized and is rendered less harmful to the body. In Phase 2, drugs, toxins, and hormones are converted into execretable substances that are in urn excreted from the body via watery fluids such as bile or urine.

    Studies have shown that calcium d-glucurate, a natural ingredient found in certain vegetables and fruits can inhibit beta glucuronidase activity resulting in increased elimination of toxins from the liver. Supplements of calcium d-glucurate will enhance the glucuronidation pathway critical in the conjugation process. In addition, methionine, folic acid, Taurine, N-acetyl-cysteine are very useful synergistic nutrients that will help this pathway. An multiple combo supplement called Multiphase Detox is highly recommended. 

    Estrogen Metabolism
    Estradiol (E2) is the principal and most active estrogen circulating inside our body, and its breakdown, like many other steriodal hormones, occurs in the liver. The half-life of estradiol (E2) is about 3 hours. There are multiple pathways that convert E2 to metabolites that have widely different biological activities.

    Estrone is the second most potent estrogen in circulation. It is easily converted back and forth from estradiol through enzymatic reactions. Both estrone and estradiol are metabolized by a process called hydroxylation. Some of the hydroxylated products are converted into estriol ( E3), while others are further broken down and secreted out the body. E3 is further conjugated in the liver and excreted in the urine.

    Normal pre-menopausal women produce several hundred micrograms of estradiol every day. Some of this estradiol find its way to binding with the nuclei in a wide variety of tissues, resulting in genetic transcription as well as cellular division. While the production of estrogen is going on, a similar amount of estradiol is removed from the body, primarily in the liver. This on going production and destruction process results in a constant balance of estradiol in our body.

    Since the metabolites are estrogen derivatives, they all possess estrogenic properties in varying degrees, as they are all part of the estrogen family. The degree of the hydroxylation (either through the two-hydroxylation or sixteen alpha-hydroxylation process) provides an indication of the metabolite's estrogenic potency.

    Metabolites such as 2-(OH)-estrone or 2-(OH)-estradiol are considered good estrogen. They are derived from hydroxylation of estrone and are the most prevalent metabolite of estradiol and estrone. These good estrogens are present in decreased level in people who are obese and in women who are on a diet high in animal fat . These good estrogens can be increased by consistent moderate exercise, a diet high in protein and low in fat, and by the consumption of food containing indol-3-carbinol such as cabbage and broccoli. In addition to being good estrogens, both 2-(OH)-estrone and 2-(OH)-estradiol have been found to be powerful anti-oxidants and can protect the lipid proxidation process by circulating iron molecules.

    Another metabolite of estrone is called the 16 alpha-(OH) estrone. This is called the genotoxic form of estrogen or "bad" estrogen. It has been shown to be more potent than estradiol. Due to its ability to combine with estrogen receptors and transforming the nuclei to synthesize DNA, the risk of breast cancer is increased significantly. For this reason, it is also called the transforming estrogen. Another bad metabolite is 4-(OH)-estrone. This is a free radical generator and its role as far as being a "bad estrogen" is still under intense investigation.

    It should be clear that just as there are good and bad cholesterols, we have good and bad estrogens. 2-(OH)-estrone is considered good, being a potent anti-oxidant and has anti-cancer properties 4-(OH)-estrone as well as 16-alpha-(OH)-estrone are considered bad, being free radical generators and at high level they are considered to be important indicators of cancer risk. The ideal ratio of 2-(OH)-estrone to 16-alpha-(OH)-estrone as measured in the urine is 2.0 or more.

    Studies have shown that 73% of breast cancer patients have a ratio below 2.0. In other words, their 16-alpha- (OH) estrone level is high compared to the 2-(OH)-estrone. Studies have also shown that women 35 years and older with breast cancer have 2-(OH)-estrone to 16-alpha-(OH)-estrone ratio that is lower than control groups. Those women with the lowest ratio have a 30% greater chance of developing breast cancer compared to the highest 2/3. The ratio of 2-(OH)-estrone to 16-alpha-(OH)-estrone is significant and is an important predictive indicator of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Fortunately both levels can be measured in the urine.

    In summary, estrogen is metabolized in the liver. Herbs that fortify the liver will speed up estrogen clearance from the body. Estrogen that is not metabolized by the liver will continue to circulate and exert it effect on the body.

    The most impressive research has been done on a special extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) known as silymarin, a group of flavonoids compounds. These compounds protect the liver from damage and enhance the detoxification process.

    Silymarin prevents damage to the liver by acting as an antioxidant. It is much more effective than vitamin E and vitamin C. Numerous research studies have demonstrated its protective effect on the liver. Extremely toxic chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride, amanita toxin, galactosamine and praseodymium nitrate produce experimental liver damage in animals. Silymarin has been shown to protect the liver against these toxins.

    Silymarin also works by preventing the depletion of glutathione. The higher the glutathione content, the greater the liver's capacity to detoxify harmful chemicals. Moreover, silymarin has been shown to increase the level of glutathione by up to 35 %. In human studies, silymarin has been shown to exhibit positive effects in treating liver diseases of various kinds including cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, fatty infiltration of the liver, and inflammation of the bile duct. The common dosage for silymarin is 70 to 200 mg one to three times a day.

    In addition, avoid caffeine, alcohol and medications that interfere with the liver's detoxification mechanism.

  5. Maintaining ideal body weight
    Half of the adults in Europe and 61% of American adults are overweight. If you are overweight, lose it as fat cells increase estrogen production. Aromatase is an enzyme that helps produce estrone locally within fat cells. Estrone (one of the three main estrogen in the body) in turns fool the pituitary gland into thinking, through a normal negative feedback mechanism, that there is a sufficient amount of estrogen on board. Ovaries are therefore instructed not to produce hormone. Progesterone output is thus reduced, setting up an environment of estrogen dominance. Obesity also is associated with a higher output of testosterone that in turn will cause the liver to put out more SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin). The more SHBG, the more hormones are bound are not available to the cells.

    Over-consumption of calories leads to increased metabolic activity in the body. This in turn leads to excessive free radical formation. Free radicals damage cells and cause genetic mutations, which ultimately can lead to cancer. Cancer is more common in overweight people. The evidence on weight is strongest for post-menopausal breast cancer and cancer of the endometrium (lining of the womb), gall bladder, and kidney.

    Obesity is normally defined by the body mass index or BMI, which is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared. An index of between 18.5 and 25 is considered healthy, while those with a score between 25 and 29 are classified as overweight and those whose BMI is higher than that are considered obese. The target weight should be to attain ideal body weight. Your ideal body weight can be calculated easily. For women, the formula is 100 pounds plus 5 pounds for every inch above 5 feet. Therefore, for a woman standing 5 feet 6 inches tall, her ideal weight is 100 + (5 pounds/inch x 6 inches) = 130 pounds. Give or take 5 pounds for large or small frame size respectively.

  6. Exercise
    Properly performed exercises have been shown to modulate hormonal imbalance through the pre-menopausal years and beyond. Those who exercise regularly are also happier, less depressed, and have an optimistic outlook on life. This results in increased life expectancy. Statistically, life expectancy increases by two hours for every hour spent doing the proper exercises.

    Numerous studies have confirmed that vigorous exercise can reduce breast cancer risk. Dr. Esther M. John, an epidemiologist at the Northern California Cancer Center in Union City, found that even moderate consistent exercise over a lifetime can reduce a young woman's risk of developing breast cancer by 33%, and the risk of breast cancer after menopause by 26% as compare to those who are sedentary. Moderate exercise is brisk walking 2 miles three times a week. In another study reported in the Journal Cancer, it was found that postmenopausal women who exercise 1 hour each day can significantly cut their breast cancer risk. Regardless of age, regular exercise is a proven key to reduction of breast cancer, not to mention the cardiovascular health benefits.

    Precision anti-aging exercises must incorporate flexibility, cardiovascular, and strength training exercises. All it takes is 5 minutes of flexibility training every day, 20-30 minutes cardiovascular training 3 times a week, and 15-20 minutes of strength training 2 times a week. A properly structured program takes an average of 30 minutes a day, which is less than 2% of the entire day. For those who are busy, daily exercise can be broken down in to 10 minute blocks. There simply is no excuse for not exercising!

  7. ADDITIONAL Nutritional Supplementation
    A . General foundational coverage

    Pyridoxine 50-100 mg, Fish oil 200-1000 mg, natural vitamin E 90-400 I.U., Magnesium 200-800 mg, vitamin C 100-1000 mg, folic acid 100-800 mcg; quercetin 350-1,000 mg;

    B. Conversion of estrogen metabolite
    Diindolylmethane (DIM) 60 mg, such as Dimpro Rx, standardized extract once or twice a day - The use of DIM is compatible with other phyto-nutrients such as soy, black cohosh, red clover, and chaste berry extract. Not everyone likes vegetables, and scientists are able to isolate the active ingredient of cruciferous vegetables. It is called Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C). Unfortunately, I3C has drawbacks. Fortunately, I3C combines with stomach acid to form 3,3-Diindolylmethane (DIM) which is safe. DIM supplementation is available. DIM is a balancer of estrogen metabolism. It increases 2 hydroxy-estrone, which is also known as the good or protective estrogen. It can be used in conjunction with a phyto-estrogen such as isoflavone as well as other phyto-nutrients such as soy, red clover, and chaste berry extractt in selected cases . Women who are on oral contraceptives are advised to stay away as DIM might reduce their effectiveness. DIM works well together with Tamoxifen and inhibits angiogenesis. DIM also raises progesterone level when necessary. It is interesting to note that both isoflavone and DIM work along different pathways. While studies have shown that supplementation with 200 mg per day of soy isoflavone increases the production of estrogen metabolites, the effect is much less than that seen with absorbable DIM. From a nutritional supplementation perspective, 70 - 400 mg may be used.

    C. Liver function Enhancement


1. Antioxidants.

Antioxidants such as vitamins A, E, and especially C are essential for detoxification as they help the cells to neutralize fee radicals that cause mutation and cellular damage. This is critical during the Phase 1 detoxification process in the liver where free radicals are released.

Vitamins should be taken as a cocktail in optimum amounts because each vitamin is unique and works on a particular part of the body. For example, both vitamins A and E are fat-soluble and are found in our fatty tissues. They are particularly effective in preventing the oxidation of cell membranes, which are made up of phospholipids.

On the other hand, vitamin C is water-soluble and fights free radicals in the plasma. Vitamin C and E to regenerate each other as well. Vitamin C is especially vital in any detoxification program, as the body needs it for energy to process and eliminate wastes.

2. Methionine

Methionine is one of the essential amino acids needed for good health but cannot be produced by the body, and so must be provided through our diet.

One of the important functions of methionine is its ability to be a supplier of sulfur and other compounds required by the body for normal metabolism and growth. Sulfur is a key element and vital to our life. Without an adequate intake of sulfur, our body will not be able to make and utilize a number of antioxidant nutrients. Methionine is also a methyl donor, capable of giving off a molecule with a single carbon atom with 3 tightly connected hydrogen atoms, called a methyl group which we need for a wide variety of chemical and metabolic reactions inside our body.
Meat, fish, and dairy products are all excellent sources of methionine. Good food sources include beans, eggs, fish, garlic, lentils, onion, soybeans, and yogurt. Vegetarians can obtain methionine from whole grains, but beans are a relatively poor source of this amino acid.

Together with choline, and inositol, methionine belongs to a group of compounds called lipotropics which help the liver to process fat in the body. Once in the liver, methionine is converted into SAM(s-adenosyl methionine). As much as 8 grams of SAM is produced in the liver each day when conditions are ideal. However, the amount of SAM produced in the body can be reduced significantly when the liver function is compromised.

Methionine is a valuable nutritional compound of multiple benefits to the body. In Europe, doctors have been using it with excellent results to treat depression, inflammation, liver diseases, and certain muscle pains. Methionine is an especially important nutrient beneficial to those suffering from estrogen dominance, where the amount of estrogen in the body is excessively high when compared to its opposing hormone called progesterone. Similarly, those who are on oral contraceptives or estrogen replacement therapy will find methionine to be helpful. Since estrogen is cleared through the liver, an enhanced liver function will reduce the body's estrogen load. Specifically, methionine converts the stronger and carcinogenic "bad" estradiol (E2) into estriol (E3) that is the "good" estrogen.

The body can convert methionine into cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. Methionine therefore protects against glutathione depletion if the body is over loaded with toxins. Because glutathione is the key neutralizer of toxins in the liver, high glutathione level protects the liver from the damaging effects of toxic compounds. Methionine is also used by the body to make a substance called choline that is essential for healthy cellular membrane function.

Most people consume enough methionine from a typical diet. The daily requirement varies depending on the body weight, but approximately 100-1000 mg a day is sufficient for those who are not estrogen dominant.

Most of us do not need to have methionine supplementation if we are in good health. However, strict vegetarians and anybody who follows a low protein diet should consider methionine supplementation. Those whose diet is high in soy should also consider methionine supplementation as soy is low in amino acids. When taking methionine supplementation, intake of taurine, cysteine, and other sulfur containing amino acids, as well as folic acid should also be included. Recommended dosage ranges from 500 mg to 4,000 mg in divided dosages throughout the day.

Because of this ability to enhance estrogen clearance from the liver, methionine supplementation should be considered for anybody with symptoms of estrogen dominance, including breast cancer. Excessive methionine intake in the presence of folic acid and vitamin B6 deficiency can increase the conversion of methionine to homocysteine that is linked to heart disease and strokes. Therefore it is essential that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B6 be added as well. Supplementation of up to 4 grams of methionine daily for long periods of time has not been associated with any serious side effect.

3. SAMe

SAMe is the metabolite of methionine and has many good attributes. A daily dose of up to 1600mg of SAMe has been used to fight hepatitis and cirrhosis. Another major application of SAMe involves the alleviation of depression. A dose of 800-1600mg a day helps to elevate mood and provide relief to those who are clinically depressed. Both methionine and SAMe have anti-inflammatory effects and are therefore used often in combination to treat osteoarthritis. A daily dose of 5g of methionine has been linked to reduced lymph rigidity and Parkinson's disease. However, the use of SAMe has not been able to reproduce similar effects. SAMe however, is helpful to those who have multiple sclerosis. SAMe's anti-inflammatory properties have also proven helpful with fibromyalgia when taken at 1gram a day. In Britain, methionine as well as SAMe are quite frequently used in the treatment of chronic fatigue.

4. Taurine.

Taurine is an important amino acid in our body. It is found mostly in our central nervous system, skeletal muscle, and in greater concentration in our heart and brain. It is made from two sulfur-containing amino acids called methionine and cysteine in conjunction with vitamin B6. Methoinine and cysteine are found in egg yolk and meat as well.

Taurine is commonly found in animal protein but not in vegetable protein. Vegetarians with a low intake of protein may have difficulty producing taurine in their bodies. In addition to meat, taurine is found in abundance in shell fish. Vegetarians as well as those on a low fat diet will have to be mindful on the amount of taurine consumed.

In cells, taurine keeps potassium and magnesium inside the cell while keeping excessive sodium out. In this sense it works like a diuretic. But unlike prescription diuretics, it is not a cellular poison. It does not act against the kidney, but improves kidney function instead. Taurine is very useful in fighting tissue swelling and fluid accumulation. People with heart failure, liver disease, late stage ovarian cancer, congestive heart failure frequently have unwanted fluid accumulation inside their bodies. Taurine has been very successfully used to treat people with high blood pressure. When excessive fluid in the body is normalized, the blood pressure becomes normalized. Taurine functions to dampen the sympathetic nervous system, thereby relieving arterial spasm. When the blood vessels relax, the body's blood pressure will fall.

There have been studies showing the positive effectiveness of taurine on heart failure. Aside from having diuretic properties, taurine is able to strengthen the heart muscles and maintain proper calcium balance. Together with Coq10 and carnitine, taurine is able to regulate the heart's contractility and guard against the toxic threat of chemotherapeutic drugs such as adriamycin(doxorubicin). Working together with magnesium, taurine also is able to regulate heart rhythm and help to stabilize it.

Taurine is an important amino acid in the female body. The female hormone estradiol depresses the formation of taurine in the liver. Women who are on estrogen replacement, birth control pill, or those suffering from excessive estrogen (this is a widespread condition commonly called estrogen dominance) may need more taurine. Taurine is also helpful in clearing excessive fluid retention during menstrual period. Furthermore, synthetic estrogen replacement therapy blocks the production of taurine in the body , as well as in the case of chemotherapy and the lack of good bacteria in the intestinal tract.

Suggested Dosage: Between 1 and 3g a day, there is usually no problem. However at a dosage of more than 5g a day, taurine may occasionally cause loose stool. The general dosage for people who have edema, high blood pressure, and seizure disorders range from 0.5-4g a day. In high doses, taurine may increase slightly the secretion of stomach acid.

5. Fish Oil

A diet low in fish oil decreases the ratio of 2-(OH)- estrogen to 16-alpha-(OH)-estrogen and thereby increases cancer risk. Intake of fish oil also has been observed to inhibit the formation of human breast cancer cells in laboratory studies.

Lean fish, which is typically found in warmer water, tends to have lower concentration of EPA and DHA and higher concentration of arachidonic acid. Several theories have been proposed to explain the link between the high intake of fish oil and the low risk of cancer. Among the most important is the inhibition of ecosinoids production from arachidonic acid (AA), and omega 6. Ecosinoids belongs to a class of compounds that are derived from poly and saturated fatty acid including prostaglandins, hydroxyl, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes. Prostaglandins are unsaturated fat that perform a wide variety of actions. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) have been linked to the formation of several types of breast and prostrate cancer. Tumor cell generally produce a large amount of AA derived from PGE2. Fish oil inhibits the oxidation of AA to PGE2. Ecosinoids derived from AA also is related to the modulation of estrogen metabolism. DHA has been shown to improve the response of breast tumors to cytotoxic agents.

Inflammatory molecules called leukotrienes are one of several substances that are released by mast cells during an asthma attack, and it is the leukotrienes which are primarily responsible for the bronchoconstriction. In chronic, more severe cases of asthma, general bronchial hyperactivity (or smooth muscle twitchiness) is largely caused by eosinophils, which are attracted into the bronchioles by leukotrienes (and other chemoattractants) and which themselves also produce leukotrienes. Thus leukotrienes seem to be critical both in the triggering of acute asthma attacks and in causing longer term hypersensitivity of the airways in the case of chronic asthma. Leukotrienes are derived from arachidonic acid, the precursor of prostaglandins.

Suggested Dosage: 500 to 10,000 mg a day.

6. Calcium-d-glucarate

D-Glucaric acid is a nontoxic, natural compound. One of its derivatives is the potent beta-glucuronidase inhibitor (1,4-GL). 1,4-GL increases the detoxification of carcinogens and tumor promoters by inhibiting beta-glucuronidase and preventing hydrolysis of their glucuronides. 1,4-GL and its precursors such as calcium D-glucarate may exert their anti-cancer action through alterations in steroidogenesis. This is accompanied by changes in the hormonal environment and the proliferative status of the target organ. Glucarates may directly detoxify any environmental agents responsible for cancer formation. It has been postulated that D-glucarate exerts some of its effects by equilibrium conversion to D-glucarolactone, a potent beta-glucuronidase inhibitor. Laboratory studies comparing calcium glucarate (CGT) with a known chemo-preventive agent, 4-HPR during Initiation Phase (I), Promotion Phase (P), and Initiation plus Promotion Phase (I+P) together showed that CGT reduced tumor multiplicity by 28 percent, 42 percent and 63 percent for the various stages respectively as compared to 4-HPR which reduce tumor multiplicity 63 percent, 34 percent and 63 percent respectively. The maximum effect occurred during the P and I+P phases. In particular, studies have showed that the chemo-preventive effect was synergistic when CGT was used together with 4-HPR.

This is one of the most important nutrient to enhance liver function.

Suggested Dosage: 250-1,000 mg a day.

7. Silymarin

Much research has been done on a special extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) known as silymarin, a group of flavonoid compounds. These compounds protect the liver from damage and enhance the detoxification process.

Silymarin prevents damage to the liver by acting as an antioxidant. It is much more effective than vitamin E and vitamin C. Numerous research studies have demonstrated its protective effect on the liver. Experimental liver damage in animals is produced by extremely toxic chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride, amanita toxin, galactosamine and praseodymium nitrate . Silymarin has been shown to protect the liver against these toxins.

Silymarin also works by preventing the depletion of glutathione. The higher the glutathione content, the greater the liver's capacity to detoxify harmful chemicals. Moreover, silymarin has been shown to increase the level of glutathione by up to 35 percent. In human studies, silymarin has been shown to exhibit positive effects in treating liver diseases of various kinds including cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, fatty infiltration of the liver, and inflammation of the bile duct. The common dosage for silymarin is 70 to 200 mg one to three times a day.

Suggested Dosage: standardized extract 200-800 mg a day

8. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC)

NAC is also a good natural chelator of lead and mercury from dental amalgam fillings, cadmium and lead from paint and cigarette smoke. Because it is produced in living organism from the amino acid cysteine, it is a natural sulfur-containing compound and a natural and powerful anti-oxidant as well. Having these duo properties make NAC an indispensable nutrient in liver fortification and detoxification tool concurrently.

N-Acetyl Cysteine is a more stable compound than taking oral cysteine, but as it is metabolized, some N-Acetyl Cysteine may be oxidized and become insoluble. This may form kidney stones. It is therefore recommended that individuals taking NAC take should also be taking vitamin C to prevent NAC from being oxidized.

Estrogen is metabolized in the liver. By enhancing liver function, more estrogen is broken down in the body , reducing the overall estrogen load.

Suggested Dosage: 350 -2,000 mg a day

9. Alpha Lipoic Acid

Called the universal antioxidant for its ability to dissolve well in water and in fat environment, Lipoic acid increase the effectiveness or potency in other antioxidants. It can cross the blood brain barrier while others cannot . It can easily reach all parts of the liver easily when other nutrients have difficulty. One of the most beneficial effects of both alpha Lipoic acid is its ability to regenerate other essential antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, and glutathione. The evidence is especially strong for the ability of Lipoic acid to recycle vitamin E. This is apparently achieved directly by quenching tocopherol radicals or indirectly by reducing vitamin C or increasing the levels of ubiquinol (a derivative of CoQ10) and glutathione that in turn, helps to regenerate tissue levels of vitamin E.

Suggested dosage: 125-1,000 mg a day

10. Quercetin

Extensively researched, this flavonoid damages cancer cells only and leaves normal cells intact. Food sources include onion and apples. It acts synergistically with chemotherapy agents like tamoxifen, cisplatin, Adriamycin and also radio therapeutic agents. It is a potent aromatase inhibitor and reduces the metastatic potential of cancer cells. It stimulate the immune system like reishi and maitake mushroom, a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger, and alters the mitotic cell cycle in tumor cells and genetic expression. Most importantly, it is anti-angiogenesis and enhances apoptosis. It increases the intracellular glutathione level, thereby enhancing liver function. It acts synergistically with hyperthermia treatment protocols.

It inhibits mutant P53 protein that arrest the G2 end phase of the cell cycle. Most drugs only inhibit the G1 phase. It induces apoptosis of cancer cells. It suppresses glycolysis and ATP production, interferes with ion pump systems, various signal transduction pathways, and inhibition of DNA polymerase B and I. It binds to estrogen receptor sites, working like tamoxifen and inhibit the growth of estrogen positive and estrogen negative cells. It inhibits mutant P21 gene found in over 50 percent of colon cancers which signals DNA replication in cancer cells. 

Vitamin C enhances the effectiveness of quercitin, and vice-versa. One caution is that tangeretin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, completely blocked the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on mammary cancer in mice. Another study also showed that tamoxifen and genistein synergistically inhibit the growth of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells. Until more confirmatory studies are conducted and the flavonoid-tamoxifen interactions more thoroughly investigated, it is best to avoid high therapeutic ( over 1,500 mg) doses of flavonoid compounds in breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. Low remission and preventive doses (350 to 1500 mg) are acceptable and helps to reduce estrogen sensitive receptors.

Suggested Dosage: 350 mg to 3,000 mg a day

11. Grape Seed Extract

In 1951, a French researcher named Dr. Jacques Masquelier patented the process of extracting proanthocyanidins from the bark of the European coastal pine tree. The extracted proanthocyanidins, which are powerful antioxidant nutrients from the bioflavonoid family of compounds, were named Pycnogenol® (pronounced Pick-nah-geh-nol).

The name pycnogenol can refer to two things. Besides Dr. Masquelier's trademarked compound, Pycnogenol® is also the name of a variety of compounds that contain proanthocyanidins (the active ingredient in Pycnogenol). These compounds can be derived from a variety of natural sources, such as grape seeds, which contain a high concentration of these substances.

The extracted proanthocyanidins (PCO) functions the same way as Vitamins C and E. By scavenging free radicals, it can help to fortify Phase 1 of the liver detoxification pathway, resulting in an increase of estrogen clearance. With less estrogen, heavy menstrual bleed can be normalized.

What makes PCO so effective? Firstly, it is rapidly absorbed due to its excellent water solubility and distributed throughout the body within twenty minutes. It can be retained for as long as 72 hours while it neutralizes free radicals and prevents oxidation. It also works synergistically with other anti-oxidants like Vitamin C, quercitin, and lipoic acid, thereby enhancing their effects. The results usually noted are delayed signs of aging, improved circulation as well as a stronger immune system. PCO also arms the human body with excellent antioxidant nutritional support for a variety of body repairs. It makes capillaries less susceptible to fragility and rupture; consequently, PCO is useful in blood vessels related conditions like varicose veins, peripheral hemorrhage, diabetic retinopathy, and high blood pressure.

Compared to other nutrients normally prescribed for the above conditions, PCO demonstrated a threefold improvement of their damaged capillaries. PCO works by inhibiting the release of unwanted collagenases, which breaks down proteins. Whenever there is tissue damage and/or inflammation, these collagenases are released, thus causing the decay of the fragile capillary walls. Proanthocyanidins strengthen our capillary walls, making them valuable for circulatory disorders of all kinds, including varicose veins, hardening of arteries, and impaired blood flow to the brain.

19 years after Dr Masquelier patented the process, proanthocyanidins were also extracted from grape seeds. Pycnogenol®'s bioflavonoid concentration is 85% while that of grape seeds' stands is higher at 92% to 95%. The cost of the grape seed extract is also much less expansive.

Some people have replaced their vitamins supplements totally with Pycnogenol®, thinking that it offers better protection. This is an incorrect assumption. It should be understood that any compounds with proanthocyanidins cannot take the place of the other vitamins. PCOs work together with vitamins to increase the overall effectiveness of each other. In other words, PCOs should be taken in addition to and not in place of common well-researched and established antioxidants such as Vitamin C and E. For practical purposes, the small difference in bioflavonoid concentration between Pycnogenol® and grape seed extract is insignificant for the same dosage. Based on cost factors however, grape seed extract is usually recommended.

Suggested dosage: 100 to 1,000 mg a day.

Significantly higher dosages are needed for specific problems. To limit heavy menstrual flow, up to 3,000 mg a day may be required. Therapeutic effects can be seen as early as one month, with menstrual flow reduced from 7 days to 4 days.

D. Control of estrogen dominance symptoms

Gamma aminobutyric acid for emotional stability at 250-2,000 mg; taurine for excessive fluid accumulation at 300 - 3,000 mg; chromium polynicotinate to help control sugar craving at 100- 800 mcg; Glutamine to enhance energy and enhance gastric function at 300-3,000 mg a day;

  • Avoid Iron unless you are anemic.
  • Avoid copper unless adviced by a health care professional.

8. Reduced Environmental Estrogen (Xenoestrogen) Load

Last but not least, external estrogen load is a key component that everyone should follow. Start with your home with the following:

  • Throw away all pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides. 
  • Throw away cosmetics that have toxic ingredients such and switch to organic and "clean" cosmetics.
  • Throw away nail polish and nail polish removers.
  • Use organic soaps and toothpastes.
  • Don't use fabric softeners as it puts petrochemical right on your skin.
  • Use only naturally based perfumes. Most perfumes are petrochemically based.
  • Have a good water filter for your source of water.
  • Do not use plastic goods since all plastic leach into the environment.
  • Eat only organic based whole foods.
  • Avoid surfactants found in many condoms and diaphragm gels.
  • New carpet can give off noxious fumes.
  • Be aware of noxious gas such as that from copiers and printers, carpets, fiberboards, computer monitors that emit high level of electromagnetic force ( EMF).
  • Avoid X-rays as much as possible.
  • Do not microwave food in plastic containers, and especially avoid the use of plastic wrap to cover food for microwaving.\
  • Wash your food well to rid the pesticides. Bathe the washed food in ozonated water for 20 minutes before cooking.

9. Stress Reduction

The adrenal gland is where stress is expressed. Chronic stress leading to adrenal fatigue is a leading cause of progesterone depletion and thus estrogen dominance. Balancing excessive estrogen requires taking into consideration steps to reduce and remove stressors which compromise adrenal function . Many women with estrogen dominance will see their symptoms improve by simply optimizing the adrenal gland function for the simple reasons that a properly functioning adrenal gland will put out the necessary progesterone needed to balance any excessive estrogen.

10. Pregnenolone and DHEA Supplementation

Pregnenolone and DHEA are precursors of progesterone, estrogen, and androgen. Fortification of the adrenal function with these two hormones are particularly effective in reducing adrenal fatigue, together with identification and removal of stressors. This is especially true if there are signs of chronic stress response.